About BIM

Building Information Modelling (BIM) is a collaborative way of working underpinned by digital technologies among the Architecture, Engineering, Construction & Operation (AECO) industry stakeholders across the project life cycle that allows for more efficient methods of designing, delivering and maintaining physical built assets. The information contained within the models facilitates informed decision making, and that means higher clarity, better communications, and, ultimately, better efficiency. As the cost of operating and maintaining buildings and facilities represent up to 85% of the whole-life cost, savings can pay back any upfront premium for construction expenses in just a few years. Efficiently diffusing BIM technologies and workflows in a project life cycle benefits the AECO industry and especially the client organization.

 

  The key benefits of BIM are reduced delivery costs, green performance, predictable planning reducing risks, reduced operational costs & increased quality and value. Additional benefits are high levels of collaboration, communication and coordination among the stakeholders, consistent and coordinated designs and highly constructible design solutions. The client organization is the key for any project; they can request AECO industry to diffuse BIM technologies & workflows with the expected maturity to lower project costs, faster project delivery, lower emissions, better customer services and risk management. Meanwhile, AECO industry can also get a package of benefits with BIM diffusion. First, architectural & engineering organization, i.e., designer s, specifiers & cost consultants can benefit with improved coordination, visualization, better cost estimating, and competitive export & growth. Second, construction organization, i.e., contractors/subcontractors, fabricator & supplier/manufacturer can benefit with sequencing, clash detection, reduced abortive work, offsite manufacture, competitive export & growth and health & safety. Third, facility management organization, i.e., operators and occupiers can benefit with asset knowledge, better information, and soft landings.

 

  Globally, BIM awareness is spreading in an excellent way for the benefits it is binging to the AECO industry. BIM has been researched roughly in sixty-five countries. BIM has been adopted in the tertiary education system in more than twenty-five countries. BIM adoption efforts from the public sector are happening in approximately thirty nations. And, several national level organizations support BIM adoption and implementation in around thirty-one countries. In India, AECO industry is the second largest industry after agriculture industry. Indian AECO industry employs thirty-five million people, has a second highest inflow of foreign direct investment after services sector, and contributes to about 11.1% of India’s GDP. Asper construction 2025 targets, BIS, HM Government 2013, implementation of BIM technologies and workflows in the AECO projects can reduce in the initial cost of construction and the whole life cycle cost up to 50%, reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the built environment up to 50% and reduce in the overall time by 50%, from inception to completion, for new build and refurbishment assets. With such a massive investment happening in Indian AECO projects, it is very much essential to diffuse BIM technologies and workflows by adopting standardized procedures. For this to happen, it is a primary requirement to bring together Indian AECO industry and education community to learn and diffuse BIM technologies and processes in Indian AECO projects, overall helping the Indian AECO industry to grow.

Benefits of BIM for Stakeholders across the Project Life Cycle

1.Preparation Stage

  • Client-Better projections through sharing of requirements with all stakeholders. Earlier decision making.

  • Architect/Designer-Improved clarity of project brief and client / owner understanding.

  • Engineer/M&E-Improved access to information. Early input to feasibility planning, design, costs and improving the environmental impact.

  • Cost/Consultant-Improved access to information and cost models. Enables earlier optioneering.

  • Planner/Project Manager-Improved access to information and early engagement.

  • Main Contractor- Supports early contractor involvement.

  • Specialist Contractor- Improved access to information.

  • Manufacturer/Supplier- Opportunity for early consideration of specialist equipment and materials.

  • Asset/Facilities Manager- Early stage definition of COBie deliverables for Asset / Facilities management.

2.Design Stage​

  • Client-Earlier engagement and understanding of design proposals and options leading to earlier stabilization of the brief.

  • Architect/Designer-More effective design, review and co-ordination. Easier to assess options, costs and outcomes.

  • Engineer/M&E-Opportunity to influence and optimize design outcomes. Early stage clash detection, specification and design enhancements.

  • Cost/Consultant-Measurement and cost calculations semi-automated, resulting in being faster and more accurate.

  • Planner/Project Manager-Improved visibility of development and options.

  • Main Contractor- Opportunity to review / influence design outcomes.

  • Specialist Contractor- Opportunity to influence design outcomes.

  • Manufacturer/Supplier- Early stage selection and demand forecast. Supply certainty through improved accuracy of bill of materials, fewer surprises.

  • Asset/Facilities Manager- Opportunity to influence design and operation for improved operation and maintenance.

3. Pre-Construction Stage

  • Client-Improved delivery confidence, earlier on-site date and reduced risk.

  • Architect/Designer-Improved multi-discipline construction model, improved predictability and fewer claims.

  • Engineer/M&E-Improved engineering design and cost modelling with reduced risks. Increased opportunity for off-site manufacturing.

  • Cost/Consultant-Simpler change and review process using model. Greater clarity of specification and costs.

  • Planner/Project Manager-Improved logistics, construction scheduling and H&S planning.

  • Main Contractor- Improved collaboration with all stakeholders. Improved logistics.

  • Specialist Contractor- Increased opportunity to incorporate off-site construction.

  • Manufacturer/Supplier- Supply certainty through improved a Cost/Consultancy of information, resulting in fewer surprises. Increased opportunity for off-site manufacturing and assembly.

  • Asset/Facilities Manager- Early stage population of Asset / Facilities Management model

4. Construction Stage

  • Client-Earlier completion, reduced cost from delays and waste. Improved compliance with specification and quality.

  • Architect/Designer-Less changes to design during construction and improved compliance / design quality.

  • Engineer/M&E-Improved build quality and speed. Fewer queries / RFI’s. Faster commissioning and pre-populated handover details.

  • Cost/Consultant-Improved visibility of costs and cash flow during construction. Fewer queries / RFI’s.

  • Planner/Project Manager-Improved progress monitoring and management.

  • Main Contractor- Fewer queries / RFI’s. Reduced risk of over-run. Smoother handover to Client and Asset / Facilities Manager.

  • Specialist Contractor- Smoother handover to client and Asset / Facilities Manager.

  • Manufacturer/Supplier- Improved logistics and right first time fit. Reduced need for replacement items.

  • Asset/Facilities Manager- Faster commissioning. Asset / Facilities Manager handover information pre-populated from model.

5. Use Stage

  • Client-Better optimized and more sustainable assets / facilities with improved management and maintenance.

  • Architect/Designer-Ability to learn from whole life performance and learn from operational data and modifications.

  • Engineer/M&E-Ability to improve whole life performance and learn from operational data. Improved ability to modify to suit demands.

  • Cost/Consultant-Ability to learn from operational data including whole life cost.

  • Planner/Project Manager-Reduced disruption from maintenance and modification activities.

  • Main Contractor- Reduced defects and remedial work.

  • Specialist Contractor- Opportunity for whole life service.

  • Manufacturer/Supplier- Opportunity for whole life service.

  • Asset/Facilities Manager- Asset / Facilities management system populated by supply chain and maintained by operator. Improved SLAs.

BIM Uses in Project Life Cycle

Efficient BIM diffusion in AECO PLC-project life cycle stages can bring in several benefits to the built environment project, i.e. faster and efficient process, better design and visualization, controlled life and environmental data, better production quality, automated assembly, better customer service, lifecycle data, integration of planning and implementation processes, efficient and competitive industry and so on. BIM proposes a consistent digital information platform that can benefit the AECO project stakeholders throughout the PLC stages. The method of applying BIM technology during a PLC for achieving one or more specific objectives is termed as BIM Use. There are a varied number of tasks in the project lifecycle of  building which can benefit from the incorporation of BIM technologies, and these benefits are documented as BIM Uses. These seventy-five BIM Uses are organized by phase of project development. These BIM Uses are identified from extensive literature review, comparison of BIM Uses in existing literature and further discussions with the BIM experts to finalize the list of BIM Uses. BIM Uses are organized in chronological order from strategic definition to the In-use stage of the RIBA PLC stages that benefit the BIM implementation in AECO projects (Table 1). It is essential to consider the risk elements associated with implementing or not implementing a particular BIM Use. Some of the BIM Uses can significantly reduce overall project risk; however, they may shift risk from one party to another. In other situations, implementation of a BIM Use may potentially add risk for a party when they successfully perform their scope of work.

Table 1. BIM Uses in the project life cycle

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NOTE: This table showcase few BIM Uses throughout a project life cycle. The mapping exercise performed in this section indicates that most of these BIM Uses are independent, and occur in more than one stage of the project lifecycle. In the table “*****” in project type column category represents that BIM Uses are important. Brown box in the table indicates that particular BIM Use appear in the given project life cycle stage.

To deliver any BIM Use within the project execution process, it is essential to perform a set of BIM Uses. BIM Uses such as 2D documentation, 3D detailing, BIM/GIS overlapping, energy simulation, sustainability analysis and whole life cycle analysis can occur in six to seven stages of PLC. Few of these BIM Uses are fundamental for the delivery of BIM projects. The primary BIM Uses are design authoring, 2D documentation, clash detection, cost estimation, structural analysis, construction planning, BIM or facility management integration and many more. Moreover, for some of these BIM Uses to be executed, it is essential to have other sets of BIM Uses executed as a pre-requisite. It is essential to realize the relationship between these BIM Uses which can be considered for the future study. The criticality of any particular BIM Use depends on the project type and its complexity. Some of the project types include green building (green), smart building (smart), complex façade or structure (facade) and many more. Each project type demands a different set of BIM Uses as critical ones. It is a pre-requisite to understand the project type, project goals, and BIM Uses relationships to choose the right set of BIM Uses for any project delivery.